The smartization of metropolitan cities: the case of Paris

Although the smart city literature is continuously increasing these last decades, there is still a need to better understand what make their essence and smartness. The aim of the study is to deepen the understanding of the business model logic of the metropolitan city’s smartization process. More specifically, the research investigates how the building blocks of business model drive the smartization of metropolitan cities. The study explores the case of Paris, the capital of France, which has undergone a deep process of smartization over the last 15 years.

The Parisian model of a smart city is insightful in several ways. The building blocks were reconfigured based on the three waves of smartization – search for legitimacy, from ‘urban intelligent’ to ‘ingenious city’, and ‘creative & living city’. Paris revised the drivers of the business model building blocks to remain smart and keep on creating value. Paris relies on new technologies as tools to involve all citizens, to go beyond sustainability; and to combine urban intelligence, social inclusion, resilience and technological innovation.

Discover the research of Sylvaine Castellano


Smart objects allow for physical or physiological Self-Tracking and Self-Quantification. The Quantified-Self provides Self-Knowledge through Self-Tracking with technology, where data collection is performed through Self-Monitoring using combined wearable technologies, i.e. sensors and computing systems (Maltseva, Lutz, 2018). The Quantified-Self movement is therefore a means to learn more about the meaning of technology in the context […]

Innovation is nowadays a primary key success factor and among the most important capacities to maintain competitive advantage in a fast-changing world. In their recent paper, Boubaker, Guizani, and Lakhal examine the effect of firm innovation on stock price crash risk. Using a sample of French publicly-traded firms covering 2007–2016, they find that innovative firms are more likely to […]